Background: Poland syndrome also referred to as Poland Anomaly or sequence is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by absence or under development of the pectoralis major and sometimes minor muscle with or without limb asymmetry and a combination of other physical anomalies. The global incidence is estimated to be 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 but is thought to be underestimated due to the different degrees of the physical anomalies and a general lack of awareness about the condition. No cases have been reported from Ghana to the best of our knowledge.
History: A sixteen year old girl presented with gross asymmetry of the breasts. Further examination revealed asymmetry of the upper limbs with shortened digits on the left. Anomaly only became noticeable during puberty.
Conclusion: Though defects in Poland syndrome are present at birth, some individuals with Poland syndrome only present during puberty. Poland syndrome can be left-sided and also occur in females though majority of reported cases tend to be right-sided involving males.
Kennedy KR, Wang AL. Poland syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018 ;378(1):72.
Bansal A, Reddy K, Dinsmore K, Gonzalez-Estradaet A. BMJ Case Rep Published Online First: [14 July 2017]. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-221564
Lantzsch T, Lampe D, Kantelhardt EJ. Correction of Poland’s Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Current Literature. Breast Care (Basel). 2013 May;8(2):139–42.
Lizarraga KJ, De Salles AA. Multiple cavernous malformations presenting in a patient with Poland syndrome: A case report. J.Med.Case Rep.2011 Sep 20;5(1):469 .5.
Yiyit N. Bilateral Poland’s Syndrome: A Case Report. Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine [Internet]. 2016 May 1 [cited 2018 Dec 10];7(3). Available from: http://www.jcam.com.tr/files/KATD-1457.pdf
Poland Syndrome [Internet]. NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). [cited 2018 Dec 3]. Available from: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/poland-syndrome/
Gushegu J, Byiringiro J.C, Nyundo M, Uwineza A, Mutesa L.Poland Syndrome: A Case Report. East.Cent.Afr.J.Surg.2009 Jul/Aug;14(2):112-14.
Goyal H, Naaz F, Gulati R.K.Poland Syndrome: A Case Report. PIJR2014 March;3(3):126-7.
Poland Syndrome: Causes, Treatment, and Diagnosis [Internet]. Healthline. 2017 [cited 2018 Dec 3]. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/poland-syndrome
Fokin AA, Robicsek F. Poland syndrome revisited. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;74:2218-25.
Poland Syndrome Treatment & Management: Surgical Therapy, Intraoperative Details, Postoperative Details. 2018 Sep 4 [cited 2018 Dec 3]; Available from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1273664-treatment
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.